Skip to main content
Skip to article control options
No AccessFull-Length Papers

Identification and Validation of an Engine Performance Database Model for the Flight Management System

Published Online:

This Paper presents the validation studies results of an engine mathematical performance model identification for flight management system trajectory prediction and optimization applications. The methodology was applied to the Cessna Citation X business aircraft, for which the aircraft flight manual and the flight crew operating manual are available. In addition, another data source based on computerized trajectory was also used to generate several climb and descent flight profiles required in the engine model identification process. To demonstrate and further validate the accuracy of the proposed engine performance model, a level-D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X was used as a reference. According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA, AC 120-40B), level D corresponds to the highest qualification level for the flight dynamics and engine modeling. Validation of the methodology was accomplished by comparing the prediction model with a series of flight data collected with the flight simulator for different flight conditions and different flight phases including takeoff, climb, cruise, and idle descent. Comparison results were validated with a tolerance of ±5% for each engine performance predicted by the model in terms of fan speed, core speed, thrust, and fuel flow.


  • [1] ICAO, “Aviation’s Contribution to Climate Change,” Tech. Rept., ICAO Environmental, 2010, Google Scholar

  • [2] Lee D. S., Fahey D. W., Forster P. M., Newton P. J., Wit R. C., Lim L. L., Owen B. and Sausen R., “Aviation and Global Climate Change in the 21st Century,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, Nos. 22–23, 2009, pp. 3520–3537. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] ICAO, “On Board a Sustainable Future,” Tech. Rept., ICAO Environmental, 2016, Google Scholar

  • [4] IATA, “A Global Approach to Reducing Aviation Emissions,” Tech. Rept., International Air Transport Association (IATA), 2009, Google Scholar

  • [5] Hendricks R. C., Bushnell D. M. and Shouse D. T., “Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach,” International Journal of Rotating Machinery, Vol. 2011, 2011, Paper 782969. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Sandquist J. and Guell B. M., “Overview of Biofuels for Aviation,” Chemical Engineering Transactions, Vol. 29, 2012, pp. 1147–1152. doi: Google Scholar

  • [7] Calado E. A., Leite M. and Silva A., “Selecting Composite Materials Considering Cost and Environmental Impact in the Early Phases of Aircraft Structure Design,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 186, June 2018, pp. 113–122. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Martin R., “Sustainable Energy: The Race for the Ultra-Efficient Jet Engine of the Future,” MIT Technology Review, 2016, Google Scholar

  • [9] Segui M., Sugar-Gabor O., Koreanschi A. and Botez R. M., “Morphing Wing Application on Hydra Technologies UAS-S4,” IASTED Modelling, Identification and Control 2017 Conference, Innsbruck, Austria, Feb. 2017. Google Scholar

  • [10] Koreanschi A., Gabor O. S., Acotto J., Brianchon G., Portier G., Botez R. M., Mamou M. and Mebarki Y., “Optimization and Design of an Aircraft’s Morphing Wing-Tip Demonstrator for Drag Reduction at Low Speed, Part I—Aerodynamic Optimization Using Genetic, Bee Colony and Gradient Descent Algorithms,” Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2017, pp. 149–163. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Koreanschi A., Gabor O. S., Acotto J., Brianchon G., Portier G., Botez R. M., Mamou M. and Mebarki Y., “Optimization and Design of an Aircraft’s Morphing Wing-Tip Demonstrator for Drag Reduction at Low Speeds, Part II—Experimental Validation Using Infra-Red Transition Measurement from Wind Tunnel Tests,” Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2017, pp. 164–174. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12] Jensen L., Hansman R. J., Venuti J. and Reynolds T., “Commercial Airline Altitude Optimization Strategies for Reduced Cruise Fuel Consumption,” 14th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA Paper 2014-4289, June 2014. Google Scholar

  • [13] Jensen L., Hansman R. J., Venuti J. C. and Reynolds T., “Commercial Airline Speed Optimization Strategies for Reduced Cruise Fuel Consumption,” 2013 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA Paper 2013-4289, Aug. 2013. Google Scholar

  • [14] Murrieta-Mendoza A., Beuze B., Ternisien L. and Botez R. M., “New Reference Trajectory Optimization Algorithm for a Flight Management System Inspired in Beam Search,” Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2017, pp. 1459–1472. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Murrieta-Mendoza A., Hamy A. and Botez R. M., “Four- and Three-Dimensional Aircraft Reference Trajectory Optimization Inspired by Ant Colony Optimization,” Journal of Aerospace Information Systems, Vol. 14, No. 11, 2017, pp. 597–616. doi: LinkGoogle Scholar

  • [16] Liden S., “The Evolution of Flight Management Systems,” AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 13th DASC, Phoenix, AZ, 1994, pp. 157–169. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Zhao Y. and Vaddi V. V., “Algorithms of FMS Reference Trajectory Synthesis to Support NextGen Capability Studies,” 2013 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA Paper 2013-4264, Aug. 2013. Google Scholar

  • [18] Walter R., “Flight Management Systems,” The Avionics Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001, pp. 1–25. Google Scholar

  • [19] Avery D., “The Evolution of Flight Management Systems,” IEEE Software, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2011, pp. 11–13. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20] Miller S., “Contribution of Flight Systems to Performance-Based Navigation,” AERO Magazine, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, 2009. Google Scholar

  • [21] Sibin Z., Guixian L. and Junwei H., “Research and Modelling on Performance Database of Flight Management System,” 2nd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (CAR 2010), Wuhan, 2010, pp. 295–298. doi: Google Scholar

  • [22] Marshall R. T. and Schweikhard W. G., “Modeling of Airplane Performance from Flight-Test Results and Validation with an F-104G Airplane,” NASA TN-D-7137, 1973. Google Scholar

  • [23] Gong C. and Chan W., “Using Flight Manual Data to Derive Aero-Propulsive Models for Predicting Aircraft Trajectories,” AIAA’s Aircraft Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) 2002 Technical Forum, AIAA Paper  2002-5844, Oct. 2002. LinkGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Cavcar M. and Cavcar A., “Aero-Propulsive Modeling of Transport Aircraft for Air Traffic Management Applications,” AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, Guidance, Navigation, and Control and Co-Located Conferences, AIAA Paper  2004-4792, Aug. 2004. LinkGoogle Scholar

  • [25] Baklacioglu T. and Cavcar M., “Aero-Propulsive Modelling for Climb and Descent Trajectory Prediction of Transport Aircraft Using Genetic Algorithms,” Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 118, No. 1199, 2014, pp. 65–79. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26] Kobayashi T. and Simon D. L., “Hybrid Neural-Network Genetic-Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics,” Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2005, pp. 751–758. doi: LinkGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Martin S., Wallace I. and Bates D. G., “Development and Validation of a Civil Aircraft Engine Simulation Model for Advanced Controller Design,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 130, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1–15. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28] Roberts R. A. and Eastbourn S. M., “Modeling Techniques for a Computational Efficient Dynamic Turbofan Engine Model,” International Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 2014, 2014, Paper 283479. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29] Bardela P. A. and Botez R. M., “Identification and Validation of the Cessna Citation X Engine Component Level Modeling with Flight Tests,” AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, AIAA SciTech Forum, AIAA Paper  2017-1942, Jan. 2017. LinkGoogle Scholar

  • [30] Bardela P.-A., Botez R. M. and Pageaud P., “Cessna Citation X Engine Model Experimental Validation,” IASTED Modelling, Identification and Control 2017 Conference, Innsbruck, Austria, Feb. 2017. Google Scholar

  • [31] Herndon A. A., “Flight Management Computer (FMC) Navigation Database Capacity,” Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference (ICNS), Herndon, VA, April 2012, pp. M6-1–M6-9. doi: Google Scholar

  • [32] Durrieu G., Faugere M., Girbal S., Pérez D. G., Pagetti C. and Puffitsch W., “Predictable Flight Management System Implementation on a Multicore Processor,” Embedded Real Time Software (ERTS ’14), Toulouse, France, Feb. 2014. Google Scholar

  • [33] Torenbeek E., Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design, Springer Science & Business Media, Boston, MA, 2013, pp. 197–240. Google Scholar

  • [34] Mattingly J. D., Heiser W. H. and Pratt D. T., Aircraft Engine Design, 2nd ed., AIAA Education Series, AIAA, Reston, VA, 2002, pp. 1–690. LinkGoogle Scholar

  • [35] Young T. M., Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane: Analysis Methods, Flight Operations, and Regulations, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2017, pp. 175–219. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36] Ghazi G., Botez R. and Achigui J. M., “Cessna Citation X Engine Model Identification from Flight Tests,” SAE International Journal of Aerospace, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2015, pp. 203–213. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37] Bartel M. and Young T. M., “Simplified Thrust and Fuel Consumption Models for Modern Two-Shaft Turbofan Engines,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1450–1456. doi: LinkGoogle Scholar

  • [38] Ghazi G., Botez R. M. and Tudor M., “Performance Database Creation for Cessna Citation X Aircraft in Climb Regime Using an Aero-Propulsive Model Developed from Flight Tests,” AHS Sustainability 2015, Montreal, Canada, Sept. 2015. Google Scholar

  • [39] Suchkov A., Nuic A. and Swierstra S., “Aircraft Performance Modeling for Air Traffic Management Applications,” 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar, Budapest, Hungary, June 2003. Google Scholar

  • [40] Blake W., Jet Transport Performance Methods, Flight Operations Engineering, Boeing, 1989, pp. 1–2. Google Scholar

  • [41] AIRBUS, “Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance,” AIRBUS Customer Services, 2002. Google Scholar

  • [42] Evans A. B., “The Effects of Compressor Seventh-Stage Bleed Air Extraction on Performance of the F100-PW-220 Afterburning Turbofan Engine,” NASA CR-179447, 1991. Google Scholar

  • [43] Mitchell M., Muftakhidinov B. and Winchen T., Engauge Digitizer, A Free Open-Source Software to Extract Data Points from a Graph Image, Ver. 10.3, 2002, hosted on SourceForge at Google Scholar

  • [44] Ghazi G. and Botez R., “Development of a High-Fidelity Simulation Model for a Research Environment,” SAE TP  2015-01-2569, 2015. doi: Google Scholar

  • [45] Ghazi G., “Développement d’une Plateforme de Simulation et d’un Pilote Automatique-Application aux Cessna Citation X et Hawker 800XP,” Master’s thesis, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, 2014. Google Scholar

  • [46] Buckingham E., “On Physically Similar Systems; Illustrations of the Use of Dimensional Equations,” Physical Review, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1914, p. 345. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47] Ward D. T. and Strganac T. W., Introduction to Flight Test Engineering, 2nd ed., Kendall Hunt, Dubuque, IA, 1993, pp. 296–376. Google Scholar

  • [48] Volponi A. J., “Gas Turbine Parameter Corrections,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 121, No. 4, 1999, pp. 613–621. doi: CrossrefGoogle Scholar