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Sparse Pressure-Based Machine Learning Approach for Aerodynamic Loads Estimation During Gust Encounters

Published Online:https://doi.org/10.2514/1.J063263

Estimation of aerodynamic loads is a significant challenge in complex gusty environments due to the associated complexities of flow separation and strong nonlinearities. In this study, we explore the practical feasibility of multilayer perceptron (MLP) for estimating aerodynamic loads in gusts, when confounded by noisy and spatially distributed sparse surface pressure measurements. As a demonstration, a nonslender delta wing experiencing various gusts with different initial and final conditions is considered. Time-resolved lift and drag, and spatially distributed sparse surface pressure measurements are collected in a towing-tank facility. The nonlinear MLP model is used to estimate gust scenarios that are unseen in training progress. A filtering process allows us to examine the fluctuation of the dynamic response from the pressure measurements on the MLP. Estimation results show that the MLP model is able to capture the relationship between surface pressure and aerodynamic loads with a minimum quantity of learning samples, delivering accurate estimations, despite the slightly large errors for the cases at the boundary of the datasets. The results also indicate that the dynamic response of the pressure measurements has an influence on the learning of MLP. We further utilize gradient maps to perform a sensitivity analysis, so as to evaluate the contribution of the pressure data to the estimation of gust loads. This study reveals the significant contribution of the sensors located near the leading edge and at the nose of the delta wing. Our findings suggest the potential for an efficient sensor deployment strategy in data-driven aerodynamic load estimation.

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